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What we should know about our skin.


Structure of the skin.

The skin is our body’s largest and heaviest organ. It has a surface area ranging from 1.5 to 2 square meters. The skin covers the entire body and , it includes hairs, nails, and glands. Skin acts as a protective barrier, shielding our internal organs from injury , microbe and chemical invasion.

The skin is composed of two layers. They are epidermis and dermis . Below these two layers  there is another layer known as the hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue, which helps to attach the skin to the muscles and bones.


Epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin. It contains no blood vessels or nerve endings but the deeper layers get nutrients by emerging in interstitial fluid of dermis. The deeper layers are made up of living cells and outer most layers contain dead cells which shed nearly 500 million cells per day .

The epidermis is composed of stratified keratinized squamous epithelial cells. These keratinocytes serve as a barrier against fungi, parasites, chemicals,  heat, and UV rays. The basement layer generates new cells, which take four weeks to replace dead cells in the outermost layer.

The epidermis shields the moist internal environment from the dry external environment. Melanocytes in the epidermis secrete melanin, a pigment that is important in skin tone . Hair, sebaceous gland secretions, and sweat gland ducts all pass through the epidermis to reach the surface.


Dermis is a connective tissue that contains collagen fibers that give the skin strength and elastic fibers that give  the ability to stretch. However, if it is overstretched, it can tear and leave permanent stretch marks on the skin. Stretch marks can appear as a result of pregnancy or obesity.

Blood vessels, lymph vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands are all found in the dermis. It has heat, pain, and touch receptors. The bumpy surface of the dermis is caused by projections in the papillary region. These bumping  nature cause people’s fingerprints to form.

Skin color.

Several factors influence skin tone. Melanin is a dark pigment that melanocytes secrete  . Epithelial cells absorb  it to darken skin. The number of melanocytes remains constant, and skin tone is determined by the amount of melatonin secreted. This is determined by genetics. Sunlight exposure increases melanin secretion.

The amount of hemoglobin in the blood and the amount of blood circulation to the dermis also influence skin tone. Because of the amount of bile pigment in the dermis increases due to a large amount of fat, the skin appears yellowish.

Melanin’s primary function is to protect the skin from the harmful effects of sunlight. As a result, when dark-skinned people are exposed to sunlight, melanin forms a suntan. However, light-skinned people have no more melanin, so their skin absorbs more sunlight to maintain a higher level of vitamin D.

Foods better for a healthy skin.

Fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, tuna, and sardines, contain omega-3 fatty acids, which help to moisturize our skin. These fish are high in vitamin E, which is an important antioxidant for our skin. Zinc found in fish , aids in the formation of new cells and the maintenance of skin health.

Avocado also aids in the maintenance of healthy skin. It is high in healthy fats, which are essential for skin flexibility.

Beta carotin is found in vegetables such as carrots, spinach, and sweet potatoes, as well as fruits such as oranges. Beta carotin is converted into vitamin A in the human body. These vitamins A are antioxidants that help to protect skin cells from sun exposure.

Red and yellow bell peppers are also high in vitamin A. It is also a good source of vitamin C. This vitamin C is required for the production of the protein collagen, which keeps skin firm and strong. Bell pepper consumption helps to reduce the risk of skin wrinkling and drying as humans age.

Tomatoes are high in vitamin C and carotenoid content. Carotenoid absorbs well in our bodies when combined with a fatty substance such as olive oil or cheese. So this is almost certainly a tasty food combination for you.

Walnuts, almonds, sunflower seeds, and soy beans are also skin-friendly foods. Tea and coffee, as well as chocolate and grapes, are high in polyphenols, an important antioxidant.

So, in order to improve our skin health, we must replace alcohol and fast foods with more plant-based foods. Let us eat healthy and have healthy, youthful skin.

Deficiency symptoms that skin ask help from us  and how we can help it.

  • Itchy skin .

Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that causes us to scratch. This is frequently caused by dry skin. This happens because our skin is iron deficient. To achieve this, we can take iron tablets with vitamin C or supplement with essential food supplements.

  • Dry skin.
This condition is caused by a lack of essential fatty acids or a lack of multiple nutrients. We can overcame this by including the essential vitamin and nutrient-rich foods mentioned above, to our meals.
  • Red scaly skin in light exposed areas.
This shows the deficiency of vitamin B3. We can supply B3 from fish , nuts , avocado and other whole grains.
  • Redness around hair follicles.

This shows deficiency of vitamin C.

  • Plugging of hair follicles with keratin or coiled hairs.

This also indicates a vitamin C deficiency, which we can overcome by including more vitamin C-containing foods in our diets.

Aloe Vera , for a healthy skin.

Aloe Vera gel is excellent for sunburn relief and wound healing because it has anti-inflammatory properties . So it aids in our skin health. It helps to keep our skin clean and hydrated too.

We can apply aloe vera gel directly to our skin and it can also be used as a face moisturizer when combined with a few other herbs. Aloe Vera increases collagen production in our skin and because of that it helps to reduce the appearance of wrinkles in people over the age of 40.

Skin cancers.

Overexposure to sunlight is the leading cause of skin cancer. Sunlight’s UV rays are mainly responsible for skin cancer. UV rays cause DNA damage in epithelial cells of the skin, resulting in the formation of abnormal cells. These abnormal cells divide quickly and disorganized manner by forming a collection of cancer cells.

Other artificial sources of UV exposure include tanning beds and sun lamps. So by avoiding overexposure to sunlight, wearing protective clothing and hats as required, and using sunscreen  , you can reduce your risk of skin cancer while enjoying the outdoors.


The skin is one of the most important organs in our bodies. To keep it in good condition, we must first inform ourselves about it. Because of this , we discussed some  information about skin above . They are , structure of skin , ways to keep it healthy, and symptoms we have to be aware .  I hope that , by using them and researching more, you will be able to keep your skin healthy and youthful.















Gandhari Ayodhya

Gandhari Ayodhya

Student of NENASALA . Student of university of Colombo. After A/L student of Yasodara Devi Balika Maha Vidyalaya . Interesting in English & Science.

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